Tech & everything else

by Florian Nöding

Code Generation

In this post I’ll describe the basic ideas of generating executable code using LLVM and the Python bindings llvm-py. Let’s start with some more details about walking the AST.

Walking the AST

In the last post I’ve already described that the AST is traversed in postorder. The concrete implementation can be done in several ways. One of them is the visitor pattern. Here an external class (or class hierarchy) implements “visit” methods. These are overloaded depending on the type of AST node they should process. Since overloading is not possible in this way in Python I’m using a small variation of this pattern.

As there is no compiler I have to do the dispatching myself using a type – method mapping. The next step is unpacking the AST nodes. This could be done by using specialized AST classes for every node type or just implementing this functionality in a AST walker class. I choose the latter one.

The concrete idea is to call a dispatch method when you need to process a node. This dispatch method determines the right method to call, unpacks the AST and passes all needed arguments to the callee. The dispatch method also maintains a list of parent nodes. This makes accessing things like symbol tables easier and is simpler to implement than maintaining a parent attribute in each node – which would make AST transformation more difficult.

A minimalistic compiler for mathematical expressions After trying to explain the code generation using my own compiler for Exoself I realized that a small self contained example would be better to get a start. So here is a compiler for simple mathematical expressions.

In the source code you have to manually define an AST that the code generator should transform to executable code. Every expression is evaluated and the result printed to stdout. I’ve added many comments explaining what I’m doing.

Since the code is a bit too wide for the current page layout click on ‘view plain’ or copy it into your favorite text editor to read it.

import sys
# sys.path.append('path/to/llvm-py') # you may need to setup the path to llvm-py explicitly.
from llvm.core import *
import copy
# Tree is used for AST storage
class Tree(object):
    def __init__(self, type, text, children=None):
        self.type = type
        self.text = text
        if children:
            self.children = children
            self.children = [] # do not use a default value of children = [] in the function param list!
    def copy(self, withChildren):
        if withChildren:
            return copy.deepcopy(self)
            c = copy.copy(self)
            c.children = []
            return c
# IDs for the different AST types
class TreeType(object):
    MODULE = 1
    PLUS = 10
    MINUS = 11
    STAR = 12
    SLASH = 13
# base class for traversing an AST. Implements dispatch for the above defined node types
class ASTWalker(object):
    def __init__(self):
    def walkAST(self, ast):
        raise NotImplementedError('subclasses must implement walkAST')
        # dispatch the node to the right method after unpacking it
    def _dispatch(self, ast):
        tt = TreeType
        kwargs = {}
        kwargs['ast'] = ast
        if ast.type == tt.MODULE:
            callee = self._onModule
            kwargs['statements'] = ast.children
        elif ast.type in [tt.PLUS, tt.MINUS, tt.STAR, tt.SLASH]:
            callee = self._onOperator
            op = ast.type
            if len(ast.children) == 1:
                arg1 = ast.children[0]
                arg2 = None
            elif len(ast.children) == 2:
                arg1 = ast.children[0]
                arg2 = ast.children[1]
                assert(0 and 'dead code path')
            kwargs['op'] = op
            kwargs['arg1'] = arg1
            kwargs['arg2'] = arg2
        elif ast.type == tt.INTEGER_CONSTANT:
            callee = self._onIntegerConstant
            kwargs['value'] = int(ast.text)
            assert(0 and 'dead code path')
class CodeGen(ASTWalker):
    def __init__(self, *k, **kw):
        ASTWalker.__init__(self, *k, **kw)
    def walkAST(self, ast):
        return self._module
    def _addHelpers(self):
        # you might want to skip this function on a first read. It adds essentially a function to print integers to stdout.
        # add a prototype for printf
        # int printf(char*, ...)
        funcType = Type.function(, [Type.pointer(], True)
        printf = self._module.add_function(funcType, 'printf')
        # add a function to print integers to stdout using printf
        # void printInt(int x) { printf("%d\n", x); }
        funcType = Type.function(Type.void(), [])
        printInt = self._module.add_function(funcType, 'printInt')
        self._printInt = printInt # save for later use in _onModule
        # create a block and a builder for printInt
        bb = printInt.append_basic_block('bb')
        b =
        # create a global constant to hold the first argument of printf
        stringConst = Constant.stringz('%d\n') # zero terminated --> stringz instead of string
        string = self._module.add_global_variable(stringConst.type, '__internalGlobalConst')
        string.initializer = stringConst
        string.global_constant = True
        string.linkage = LINKAGE_INTERNAL # not strictly necessary here, but this global should only be available during link time in the current module
        # address calculation
        # every index traverses a pointer without derefencing.
        # gep (get element pointer) does only address calculation, no memony accesses!
        idx = [, 0),, 0)] # the first index get's us past the global variable (which is a pointer) to the string; the second index is the offset inside the string we want to access
        realAddr = string.gep(idx) # get real address
        # call printf, [realAddr, printInt.args[0]])
    def _onModule(self, ast, statements):
        # create a new LLVM module, a container for global variables and functions
        self._module ='mymodule')
        # add some helpers
        # add a function: 'int main()'
        funcType = Type.function(, [])
        func = self._module.add_function(funcType, 'main')
        # create an 'entry' basic block, if we want to introduce variables we'll need it anyway
        # execution of the function starts here
        entryBB = func.append_basic_block('entry')
        entryBuilder =
        # normal code should be inserted into the second block
        bb = func.append_basic_block('bb')
        # also jump to this block from the entry block
        # add the code of the function
        self._currentBuilder =
        for x in statements:
  , [x.llvmValue])
        # main should return 0
        self._currentBuilder.ret(, 0))
        # verify the module
    def _onOperator(self, ast, op, arg1, arg2):
        tt = TreeType
        if arg2:# some operators are unary
        cb = self._currentBuilder
        if op == TreeType.PLUS:
            if arg2:
                ast.llvmValue = cb.add(arg1.llvmValue, arg2.llvmValue)
                ast.llvmValue = arg1.llvmValue # +NUMBER == NUMBER
        elif op == TreeType.MINUS:
            if arg2:
                ast.llvmValue = cb.sub(arg1.llvmValue, arg2.llvmValue)
                ast.llvmValue = cb.sub(, 0), arg1.llvmValue) # -NUMBER == 0 - NUMBER
        elif op == TreeType.STAR:
            ast.llvmValue = cb.mul(arg1.llvmValue, arg2.llvmValue)
        elif op == TreeType.SLASH:
            ast.llvmValue = cb.sdiv(arg1.llvmValue, arg2.llvmValue)
            assert(0 and 'dead code path')
    def _onIntegerConstant(self, ast, value):
        ast.llvmValue =, value)
def createSampleAST():
    # do not reuse any variables! overwrite them first!
    exprs = []
    # 9 - 3 * 3
    int9 = Tree(TreeType.INTEGER_CONSTANT, '9')
    int3a = Tree(TreeType.INTEGER_CONSTANT, '3')
    int3b = Tree(TreeType.INTEGER_CONSTANT, '3')
    star = Tree(TreeType.STAR, '*', [int3a, int3b])
    minus = Tree(TreeType.MINUS, '-', [int9, star])
    # 4 + 76 / 2
    int4 = Tree(TreeType.INTEGER_CONSTANT, '4')
    int76 = Tree(TreeType.INTEGER_CONSTANT, '76')
    int2 = Tree(TreeType.INTEGER_CONSTANT, '2')
    slash = Tree(TreeType.SLASH, '/', [int76, int2])
    plus = Tree(TreeType.PLUS, '+', [int4, slash])
    # ---21
    int21 = Tree(TreeType.INTEGER_CONSTANT, '21')
    minus = Tree(TreeType.MINUS, '-', [int21])
    minus = Tree(TreeType.MINUS, '-', [minus])
    minus = Tree(TreeType.MINUS, '-', [minus])
    module = Tree(TreeType.MODULE, '', exprs)
    return module
def main():
    # get an AST, should be replaced by a lexer + parser frontend
    ast = createSampleAST()
    codegen = CodeGen()
    module = codegen.walkAST(ast)
    print module
    # to run the generated code do:
    #     ./ | llvm-as | lli
    # or
    #     ./ > out.ll
    #     llvm-as out.ll
    #     lli out.bc
    # and to generate native code skip the lli above and then
    #     llc out.bc
    #     gcc out.s
    #     ./a.out
if __name__ == '__main__':

So the basic idea of code generation is:

  • dispatch node X
  • dispatch all dependencies of X
  • emit code for X
  • and if applicable store the value of the computation in X for access by parent nodes

When you directly look at the output of the compiler you’ll see that all expressions are evaluated even before the code is executed. Since we are using only constants LLVM uses a constant folder to optimize these operations away. There is a “nofolder” implementation available in LLVM 2.4, but I don’t know how to access it through Python or the C wrapper.

As you have seen this compiler consists only of a single phase: Code generation. Try to add a lexer and parser to avoid hard coding the AST and post a comment with your solution. If you don’t want to use ANTLR or try something new I’d love to hear about your experiences with waxeye.